To kill the mockingbird анализ

To Kill a Mockingbird

To Kill a Mockingbird is a masterpiece written by Harper Lee. The novel was published in 1960 and became an instant hit. Since then, it has found inroads into schools, colleges, and libraries across the world. The novel presents the story of Lee’s hometown, Monroeville in Alabama, her family members, neighbors, and the events that took place in her life in fiction. The novel also deals with the issues of race and racial prejudice as well as racial segregation in the American South during the Great Depression.

Summary of To Kill a Mockingbird

The narrator of the novel is the six-year-old girl, Scout, who lives with her brother and father in Maycomb. Named as Scout Jean Louise Finch, the girl befriends Dill, a boy, who visits her town, Maycomb, each summer to pass his holidays with his aunt. Jem also joins them and the trio enjoy life but are terrified of the recluse, Arthur Radley, who lives in their neighborhood in Maycomb. Living in austerity, the recluse, termed Boo, in the neighborhood, who always stays away from the community. However, the children’s imaginations weave tales about the recluse, making him a butt of their rumors as well as tales. As the three enjoy each other for two summer breaks, they soon find out that somebody is leaving gifts for them in the tree outside the house of Radley, the recluse. Although he sometimes peeped through his door to have an affectionate look at the children, he never emerges out of his home, which terrifies them at first. Therefore, the speculations about him continue.

Meanwhile, an African-American man, Tom Robinson, is accused of committing the crime of molesting a white lady, Mayella Ewell, for which Atticus is appointed by the judge, Taylor, as a defense attorney. Despite disapproval from the Maycomb public about Tom’s defense, Atticus takes up the case and tries to protect Tom from the legal folly of sentencing a black without having committed a crime. It happens that his children Jem and Scout become the butt of jokes and taunts of the children of the town. They call their father, Atticus, as n**-lover, and so on. Even though Scout thinks of standing up to the bullies, her father does not allow it to her and pacifies her rather. When a group thinks of lynching Tom to death, Atticus confronts them. Scout, meanwhile, talks to the father of her friend in an unexpected manner, who happens to be present in this group of the people, and the situation is defused as the people disperse.

Despite his daughter’s fearless support, Atticus does not want his children to involve in the saga or join the trial. However, the Reverend Sykes takes Jem, Dill, and Scout to watch the trial and they see that Atticus confronts Bob and Mayella about their testimony, saying that they are entirely liars. It then becomes clear that the animosity of Mayella is on account of the rebuff she faced from Tom for her sexual encounters, while Bob is already nobody in the eyes of the public, for he is the least-trusted person in the city. Despite these two witnesses having the shady background, the jury sentences Tom which jolts the conscience of the children. However, Atticus’s optimism about the final justice led him to go for an appeal. Tom, in the meanwhile, tries to flee the jail and is shot dead as a result.

On the other hand, Atticus does his best to make the witnesses feel the guilt. He even plays havoc with Bob’s reputation that he has already lost, while he spits on him and tries to bully the judge as well as the widow of Tom, the poor victim. However, he rather takes a long route of avenging by attacking the children of Atticus when they are at the Halloween pageant. Jem’s arm is broken while Boo Radley, as it appears later, jumps in and rescues the children. In the meanwhile, the police arrive and discovers that Bob is dead through his own folly, or as it seems though Boo kills him with his knife. However, there is confusion about his killer as being Boo or Jem. The sheriff, though, decides to frame Bob for attacking them and falling on his how knife. Then Boo begs Scout to walk up to his home that she does, and then he disappears never to come back again.

Major Themes in To Kill a Mockingbird

  1. Conflict between Good and Evil: To Kill a Mockingbird shows the conflict between good and evil through the characters of Scout, Jem, Atticus, and Tom. Whereas Atticus tries to save Tom, it becomes clear that the witnesses are hell-bent on getting him awarded a sentence or even lynched to death. Scout appears at that moment to save him as well as her father to show that goodness wins by the end.
  2. Ambition: The theme of ambition in the novel has been shown through the legal commitment of Atticus Finch who is determined on saving the poor man, Tom Robinson. On the other hand, the society of Maycomb is entirely against this new custom that Atticus is going to impose upon them through legal means. Therefore, the novel shows his ambition of equality in the society that the society refuses.
  3. Education: Education is another important theme in that it is Atticus who instills this education in his children that they should be just and fair in their dealings come what may. The positive thinking and unbiased approach are the hallmarks of this new system instilled by the parents into the minds of their such as Atticus.
  4. Prejudice: Prejudice has been shown in the novel through the character of witnesses as well as the entire Maycomb. It has been proved through the false statements of witnesses that Tom is innocent, yet the jury reaches the verdict of incarcerating him merely due to the innate prejudice. Aunt Alexandra’s suggestion of teaching children the significance of class is the worst type of prejudice shown in the novel.
  5. Moral Complexity:Moral complexity is another theme shown through the character of Scout and Jem who thinks that there is no standardized yardstick to measure good and bad acts. They think that human beings are innocent but then Tom’s trial makes them aware of this flawed notion. Finally, when the Maycomb community reacts to the just and unjust through the racial prism, they see that it is a very complex thing to see morality from a single perspective.
  6. Innocence: The theme of innocence has been demonstrated through the character of Scout and Jem who see that Tom is being tried for none of his crimes, while their father has been demonized merely because he is helping an innocent person. Another theme of innocence is depicted through the character of Arthur ‘Boo’ Radley.
  7. Racism: The theme of racism has been shown through the prejudicial view of Tom’s crime and Atticus’ assistance. Scout and Jem, too, face difficulties at school merely because their father is helping the poor young man, a fact which emerges from this racial prejudice.
  8. Laws and Codes: The novel shows that a society must have a good legal code to punish the criminals. However, it dawns upon the people that even a system must have good upholders, too, for, despite the credibility of the witnesses, an innocent person is punished for none of his crimes.
  9. Knowledge: The theme of knowledge emerges through the character of Scout and Jem, who come to know that even if they help an innocent person, the community could become their enemy on account of race and gender.

Major Characters in To Kill a Mockingbird

  1. Scout Finch: Daughter of a successful lawyer, Atticus. Scout is portrayed as a tomboyish type of girl who stays a symbol of purity and innocence in the society of Maycomb. When she faces racial slurs on account of her father’s legal assistance to Tom, she bears these insults with a heavy heart and comes to know the toxicity of the racial hatred. She even rebuffs the mob by identifying the father of her friend when they are fixed on lynching Tom.
  2. Atticus: A lawyer and good-hearted person, Atticus is also the father of Jem and Scout, two very good children. Leading a successful life in Maycomb, he invites social prejudice and hatred by deciding to help Tom Robinson, a black accused of a crime on false grounds. Despite dangers and insults being hurled at his children, he does not budge from the stand that wins him the respect of his children.
  3. Jem Finch: He is the old brother of Scout and son of Atticus. He makes the trio with Dill and Scout who get gifts from Radley. He knows that his father is helping a black, the reason that the children are teasing them as a “n*** helper.” However, he shows this sense through his courage to stand up to these insults.
  4. Arthur ‘Boo’ Radley: A recluse, Boo, has been portrayed as the mockingbird who is rumored about his reclusive life. He seems quite mysterious who does not stay in the public and yet has the gift to change public thinking. When Tom is redeemed by the end due to Atticus’ determination, Radley, too, seems redeemed for his reclusive lifestyle.
  5. Dill: Dill is a curious friend of Jem and Scout who questions the Maycomb public’s racial prejudice present even in its justice system. A very sensitive child, he lies about his father and tries to get Boo out of his house to enjoy him in the public.
  6. Miss Maudie Atkinson: The old widow stays busy in her yard, tending her garden but stays indifferent to the general public behavior. Despite this indifference, she is optimistic about the public.
  7. Calpurnia: The Atticus caretaker, Calpurnia, brings up Scout and Jem in proper values. She is very kind and generous even to animals and ensures that the children are understanding and caring for others.
  8. Tom Robinson: A honest and hardworking African American, Tom becomes the victim of racial prejudice and is discriminated against even in the judicial system on account of the color of his skin. Despite the flaws in the witnesses’ accounts, he is thrown behind the bars to be hanged.
  9. Myella Ewell: She is a witness who accuses Tom of rape and yet could not conclusively prove it. Although she does not have any witness, she easily uses mob psychology and turns the entire community against Tom. Hers is an opportunistic nature.
  10. Aunt Alexandra: As the aunt of Scout and Jem, Alexandra is the sister of the lawyer, Atticus. Although she resents Scout’s Tomboy attitude, she tries to educate Calpurnia about treating and bringing the children in a proper manner.

Writing Style of To Kill a Mocking Bird

Although most of the novel is written in conversation, it sometimes takes a humorous turn according to the characters. The direct and straightforward approach of Harper Lee in telling a story that seems suavely deceptive. The story, at times, uses very complex and higher-level language to engage its readers. However, once the narrator sets the stage, she starts using a childlike narrative style. All the characters use the language that suits them such as Scout misuses it to pretend that they are guessing its true meanings, while Miss Maudie turns to the elegance of the sentences. This style also shows how Atticus and Tom are different in their language and style and how Calpurnia and Aunt Alexandra are different in their conversation.

Analysis of Literary Devices To Kill a Mockingbird

  1. Action: The main action of the novel comprises the children’s fascination with Boo Radley, Tom’s trial, and his final exoneration. However, the rising action is the fascination of the children, Jem, Dill, and Scout of Boo Radley. The falling action is of Bob Ewell’s threats to Atticus for supporting Tom, while Boo, the recluse, saves the children from Bob in his final action.
  2. Allegory: To Kill a Mockingbird shows the use of allegorical points as Tim Johnson has been shown as the bird dog of the Maycomb public, Boo is shown as a recluse who shuns society, while Tom is shown as a person who is to sacrifice himself to remove the prejudice prevalent in the society.
  3. Antagonist: Bob Ewell accuses Tom Robinson of raping his daughter, although he has been drunk at the time when, it is stated, the act has taken place. However, the primary conflict is that Tom is an African American and can be easily accused of a crime that he has never committed. As Bob accuses him falsely and frames him in the rape, he is the main antagonist of the story.
  4. Allusion: There are various examples of allusions given in the novel. Thus, we came to know Dill as a pocket Merlin, whose head teemed with eccentric plans, strange longings, and quaint fantasies. (Chapter-1)
    Hours of winter-time had found me in the treehouse, looking over at the schoolyard, spying on multitudes of children through a two-power telescope Jem had given me, learning their games. (Chapter-2)
    Miss Maudie’s face likened such an occurrence unto an Old Testament pestilence. (Chapter-6)The first example shows the use of the allusion of Merlin, the legendary King Arthur’s adviser as well as a magician. The second is an allusion to “Blind Man’s Bluff” a sort of game of children. The third reference alludes to the Plague of Egypt that has been referred to in the Bible.
  5. Conflict: There are two types of conflicts in To Kill a Mockingbird. The first one is the central conflict that is going on between the African American and the white of Maycomb. The second conflict is going on between the white who wants their children to treat all people equal sans the color of their skin such as Atticus. The others are the people who think that Atticus is leaving his section of the white people and joining the African American (black). Therefore, he should be taught a lesson to stay within the social limits.
  6. Characters: To Kill a Mockingbird presents both flat as well as round characters. Atticus is a round character who shows various aspects of his individuality during his drive to save Tom’s skin. Scout and her brother, too, are round characters. However, Bob and Mayella Ewell are both flat characters, as they do not change, neither they want to change themselves even by the end of the novel. They are as prejudicial and unforgiving in the end as they are in the beginning.
  7. Climax: The climax in To Kill a Mockingbird arrives when all the conflicts reach the final moment. Bob Ewell attacks Scout and Jem and breaks the arm of Jem when Boo appears and saves the children. This is the moment when finally Scout finds Radley to speak to him, who has been a mysterious figure for the children for so long. The moment of an anticlimax, however, arrives, when the rumor spreads around that Tom is shot down when fleeing from the prison. Also, Bob tries to intimidate Atticus who does not seem to accept his threats.
  8. Dialogue: The novel shows very good use of dialog as shown below.

“Cry about what, Mr. Raymond?” Dill’s maleness was beginning to assert itself. “Cry about the simple hell people give other people—without even thinking. Cry about the hell white people give colored folks, without even stopping to think that they’re people, too.” “Atticus says cheatin‘ a colored man is ten times worse than cheatin’ a white man,” I muttered. “Says it’s the worst thing you can do.” (Chapter-20)

I wouldn’t be so sure of that, Atticus . . . His kind’d do anything to pay off a grudge. You know how those people are. (Chapter-23).
“Ruth Jones, the welfare lady, said Mr. Ewell openly accused Atticus of getting his job. She was upset enough to walk down to Atticus’s office and tell him about it. (Chapter-27)
High above us in the darkness a solitary mocker poured out his repertoire in blissful unawareness of whose tree he sat in, plunging from the shrill kee, kee of the sunflower bird to the irascible qua-ack of a bluejay, to the sad lament of Poor Will, Poor Will, Poor Will. (Chapter-28)

A day was twenty-four hours long but seemed longer. There was no hurry, for there was nowhere to go, nothing to buy and no money to buy it with, nothing to see outside the boundaries of Maycomb County. (Chapter-1)

Maycomb was an old town, but it was a tired old town when I first knew it.
You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view-“
“- until you climb into his skin and walk around in it.
One time (Atticus) said you never really know a man until you stand in his shoes and walk around in them.

What was the evidence of her offense?
What did she do?
What did her father do?

He was as good as his worst performance. (Chapter 4).
The tire bumped on gravel, skeetered… and popped me like a cork onto pavement. (Chapter-4)


Анализ текста To kill a mockingbird из учебника Аракина за 4 курс — файл n1.docx

The story under analysis is an extract from a novel “To kill a mockingbird”. The book was written by Harper Lee in 1960. Harper Lee was born in 1926 in the state of Alabama. In 1945-1949 she studied law at the University of Alabama. “To kill a mockingbird” is her first novel and after being published it was highly acclaimed and even was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1961, one of the most important awards in literature. The book became an international bestseller and was adapted into screen in 1962.

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The events of the novel “To kill a mockingbird” take place during a difficult time in the South. At that time black people were treated as people of lower level than white ones. Racial Discrimination was running high in the South as a whole, especially in Alabama. M any details of “To kill a mockingbird” are apparently autobiographical but Harper Lee insisted that the novel is fully a work of fiction.

The events of the extract take place in the court of Maycomb County. Two small children secretly came to the trial and was sitting there the whole trial. A Negro, Tom Robison by name, was falsely accused in rapping a white woman. But Atticus, a defender and the two children’s father, was absolutely sure in his innocence and tried to give all necessary facts to persuade the jury. Actually it was the white woman’s father, Bob Ewell, who had bitten her as he had seen her kissing Tom Robinson. And also it was Mayella Ewell who broke the code and “tempted a Negro”. Before the jury goes away Atticus refers to Thomas Jefferson to remind them that the court is the only place where people are equal, no matter black or white, clever or stupid, rich or poor they are. But apparently the jury don’t take into consideration his last words as the story ends with the jury accusing Tom Robinson.

Though the story is told by a small girl, Jean Louise, the main character of the story is Atticus Finch. His character is static. He is a protagonist of the story. Atticus Finch doesn’t radically change throughout the story, he adheres the same view point that all people are created equal and should be treated equally. Atticus is described indirectly, but it isn’t very difficult to understand what kind of person he is through his actions, words and behavior. In spite of being a good lawyer, he is also a good father. We can see it from the children’s behavior. Not every child would go to the court to listen to a trial. But these two children do instead of playing in the yard. They behave as people, who are interested in such things, which is not the same for other elder people. Moreover Atticus is a brave person as he is not afraid of Ku-Klux-Klan who may lynch you if you are in good relations with black people or tries to protect them. On contrary, Atticus is eager to take up this case. the author has a sharp eye for detail: Atticus sweats a lot and it shows him to be very nervous and proves that this case is very meaningful for him. Also his voice incessantly trembles, he makes many pauses during his speech. That fact demonstrates him not to be indifferent to this case as well. He is a smart and quick-witted man and his speech proves it. He uses many similes such as “a lie as black as Tom Robinson’s skin”, “this case is as simple as black and white”. He addresses the jury “jentlemen” which characterizes him as a respectful man. Using simile “he was talking to the jury as if they were folks on the post office corner” the author wanted to show that he is not going to ingratiate with them. The allusion of the Yankees and Thomas Jefferson’s speech also give us a certain image of a well-educated man and it also proves him to be a well-educated person.

As for Bob and Mayella Ewell, antagonists of the story, they are white poor men. The author also doesn’t describe them directly. Atticus calles Mayella as a “victim of the cruel poverty and ignorance”. He understands she is guilty but doesn’t blame her. She is an elder sister in her family and is always up to the eyes in work. Moreover Bob is not a good father. He is cruel and more ignorant and ill-natured man than his daughter. He is a drunkard and beats his daughter. And there is no chance for Mayella to keep in touch with him. But still the absence of normal life doesn’t justify her.

Tom Robinson is a minor character of the story. He is a young strong Negro who is charged in raping, but in reality not guilty. The only thing he is guilty in is the color of his skin. His character is flat and static. Atticus describes him as “a quiet, respectable, humble Negro”. And that is true. He is naive and believes in justice. But for the society of that time it was impossible to justify a Negro and accuse white man instead of black one. Tom Robinson is a real victim of the story and of the society.

The extract is a kind of a story within a story. The author uses first-person narrator. The story is told by Jean Louisse. Atticus’s daughter.

Harper Lee treats the characters in a serious tone. She uses only the words which are all connected with the main problem, she doesn’t tell any unnecessary word which would prevent us to concentrate on it. Though the story is written with many professional words, it is not very difficult to read it.

The syntactical pattern is not very difficult and it doesn’t do any difficulty to follow the main idea. Harper Lee doesn’t use many details. Every used detail is important from the author’s view point and carefully selected.

The prevailing style is oratorical. The main function of this style is to persuade the audience. The speaker, Atticus uses many stylistic devises while delivering his speech in order to make the jury come to the right decision, make them believe that Tom Robinson actually is not guilty. The most frequently used stylistic device is epithet: “any God-fearing, persevering, respectable white man”, “a quiet, respectable, humble Negro”, “the cynical confidence”, “the evil assumption”.

Atticus Finch also uses such stylistic devices as allusion in the speech: “Thomas Jefferson once said”, “In the name of God”, and antonomasia: “a Rockefeller, an Einstein” are also used. Simile is used by the author too: “. we know is in itself a lie as black as Tom Robinson’s skin. ”, “this case is as simple as black and white”.

There is not only one problem in the novel. For me the most important problem is the problem of courage and bravery. According to Atticus, courage has no connection with the image of a man staying with a pistol in his hands. Courage is going on working and seeing it through knowing that you would fail. Atticus shows it on his own example: he defends Tom Robinson knowing that prejudice is more powerful then Law and he knows that for that time it is impossible to win the case.


Analysis of Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird

Harper Lee’s (April 28, 1926 – February 19, 2016) only novel, To Kill a Mockingbird (1960), has gained stature over the years, becoming thought of as more than merely a skillful depiction of small-town southern life during the 1930’s with a coming-of-age theme. Claudia Durst Johnson, who has published two books of analysis on To Kill a Mockingbird, suggests that the novel is universally compelling because Lee’s overall theme of “threatening boundaries” covers a wide spectrum, from law to social standing, from childhood innocence to racism.


The narrator of the book is Scout (Jean Louise) Finch, who is discussing childhood events with her adult brother, Jem, as the story begins. She then slips effortlessly into the role of the six-year-old tomboy who matures over the three years of the book’s action. In the first half of the novel, Scout and Jem, along with their childhood companion, Dill, are fascinated by their mysterious neighbor, Boo (Arthur) Radley. Because no one has seen Boo in many years, the youngsters construct a gothic stereotype of him, imagining him as huge and ugly, a monster who dines on raw squirrels, sports a jagged scar, and has rotten yellowing teeth and bulging eyes. They make plans to lure Boo from his “castle” (in reality the dark, shuttered Radley house), but in the course of their attempts to breach the boundaries of his life, they begin to discover the real Boo, an extremely shy man who has attempted to reach out to the children in a number of ways, and who, in the final chapters of the book, saves their lives.

The second half of the book is principally concerned with the trial of Tom Robinson, a young African American unfairly accused of raping a white woman. Racial tensions in the neighborhood explode; Scout and Jem are shocked to find that not only their peers but also adults they have known their whole lives are harshly critical of their father, Atticus, who provides the legal defense for the innocent man.




Throughout both sections of To Kill a Mockingbird Lee skillfully shows other divisions among people and how these barriers are threatened. Obviously, it is not a matter of race alone that sets societal patterns in their provincial Alabama town. For example, when Atticus’s sister, Alexandria, visits the family, she makes it clear that she is displeased by Scout’s tomboyish appearance, since she feels a future “southern belle” should be interested in more ladylike clothing and more feminine behavior. Furthermore, as Jem tells Scout later, there is a strict caste system in Maycomb, with each group threatened by any possible abridgements of the social order. As Jem suggests, there are the “old” families—the gentry, who are usually educated, frequently professional, but, given the era, often cash-poor. On the next level down are the “poor but proud” people, such as the Cunninghams. They are country folk who pay their bills with crops and adamantly refuse all charity. Beneath them is the group commonly called “poor white trash,” amply represented by Bob Ewell, “the only man ever fired by the WPA for laziness,” and his pitiful daughter Mayella, the supposed victim of the rape. At the lowest rung of the social ladder are African Americans, although many are clearly superior to some of the poor white trash, who have only their skin color as their badge of superiority. They are represented by Tom Robinson, the accused rapist, and Calpurnia, the housekeeper for the motherless Finch family.

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In addition to the clearly defined social castes, there are deviants, such as Dolphus Raymond, a white man involved in a long relationship with a black woman. He pretends to be an alcoholic to “give himself an excuse with the community” for his lifestyle. There is Mrs. Henry Lafayette Dubose, a member of the upper class who became a morphine addict, whose one desire is to overcome her habit before her death. Also featured is Miss Maudie, the friendly neighbor who seems to represent, along with Atticus, the best hope for change in the community.


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Lee uses many symbols in the book, none more pervasive than the mockingbird of the title. The bird is characterized as an innocent singer who lives only to give pleasure to others. Early in the novel, when Atticus gives Jem and Scout air rifles, he makes it clear that it would be a sin to harm a mockingbird, a theme reiterated by Miss Maudie. Two of the main characters are subtly equated with the birds: Boo Radley and TomRobinson, both innocents “caged for crimes they never committed.” Atticus himself is a symbol of conscience. Unlike his sister, he is a nonconformist, an atypical southerner, a thoughtful, bookish man at odds with his environment. He constantly tells his children that they can understand other people only by walking in their shoes. He is mindful of majority opinion but asserts, “The one thing that doesn’t abide by majority rule is a person’s conscience.”

Sometimes, violent action is necessary to alter boundaries. This is foreshadowed early in the novel when Atticus finds it necessary to shoot a rabid dog. However, later, when he faces the mob from Old Sarum, who are intent on lynching Tom Robinson, he simply sits in front of the jail, ostensibly reading a newspaper. Atticus seems very calm, upset only by the appearance of the children and Jem’s refusal to take Dill and Scout home, not by the men who threaten violence. After Scout recognizes Mr. Cunningham and mentions Walter, his son, as her school friend, the group leaves. Braxton Underwood, owner of the Maycomb Tribune, leans out of his window above the office holding a double-barreled shotgun, saying, “I had you covered all the time, Atticus,” suggesting that there may well be occasions in which force is appropriate.

Tried before a jury of white men, in an echo of the 1931 Scottsboro Nine case, which convicted nine innocent black men of raping two white women, Tom Robinson is found guilty in spite of proof that he could not have committed the crime. However, even here there is a bit of hope for change to come, because the jury does not reach a quick decision, deliberating for three hours in a case involving the strongest taboo in the South, a black man sexually molesting a white woman. Tom, however, does not believe that Atticus’s legal appeals will save him, and again violence erupts when he is shot and killed while trying to escape from the prison exercise yard.

Although Lee set her novel in a very isolated locale, which she calls Maycomb, in an era when her notion of crossing racial and social boundaries does not always seem imminently attainable, the world of 1960, when To Kill a Mockingbird appeared, was radically different. The Civil Rights movement had begun: The United States Supreme Court had ruled against school segregation in the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision, and there had been a successful bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1955-1956, which brought activist Martin Luther King, Jr., to public attention. Finally, people who believed in the importance of applying law fairly and breaking racial boundaries (as Atticus Finch did) were being heard.

There was some criticism of the melodramatic ending of the novel, in which Bob Ewell attacks the Finch children, who are in costume returning from a school Halloween pageant. Jem’s arm is broken in the scuffle, and Scout is saved from the attacker by Boo Radley, who kills Ewell with his own knife. However, in addition to providing closure for the plot, Lee uses this ending to confirm her view of Atticus and his moral character. At first, when Sheriff Heck Tate comes to the Finch home to learn the details of the evening’s happenings, Atticus mistakenly assumes that Jem has killed Bob while defending Scout. Heck tries to reassure Atticus, saying, “Bob Ewell fell on his knife. He killed himself.” Atticus believes that the sheriff is suggesting a cover-up for Jem, which he refuses, saying, “I can’t live one way in town and another way in my home.” Finally he realizes that it was Boo Radley who had stabbed Bob with a kitchen knife, not Jem. Atticus then agrees out of kindness to the reclusive Boo to go along with the sheriff’s version of the death. When he tells Scout that Mr. Tate was right, she says, “Well, [telling the truth would] be sort of like shootin’ a mockingbird, wouldn’t it?”

Most literary critics have written of To Kill a Mockingbird in glowing terms. One critic has suggested that Atticus is the symbol of the future, of the “new” South that will arise when it takes into account all human experience, discarding the old romantic notions of an isolated regionalism in favor of a wider Emersonian view of the world.

Source: Notable American Novelists Revised Edition Volume 1 James Agee — Ernest J. Gaines Edited by Carl Rollyson Salem Press, Inc 2008.


Стилистический анализ отрывка из романа Харпер Ли "Убить Пересмешника" (The analysis of the extract from the novel “To Kill a Mockingbird” by Harper Lee.)

Острикова Вероника Александровна

The analysis of the extract from the novel “To Kill a Mockingbird” by Harper Lee.

Nelle Harper Lee was born April 28, 1926. She is an American novelist, who has published only one novel, To Kill a Mockingbird. Born in Monroeville, Alabama , she studied law at the University of Alabama, then spent a year in the United Kingdom, studying at Oxford. Living in New York City , she supported herself working as an airline reservation clerk, but was soon determined to pursue a career in writing . She left her job and put together a series of short stories about life in the South, which she first submitted for publication in 1957. Encouraged by her editor, she worked the stories into a novel, To Kill a Mockingbird which was a critically acclaimed best-seller. She was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for her work in 1961. After the success of her book, Lee felt that if she wrote another it would be anticlimatic. Lee apparently retired from writing. The strongest element of style noted by critics and reviewers is Lee's talent for narration, which in an early review in Time was called "tactile brilliance". Writing a decade later, another scholar noted, " Harper Lee has a remarkable gift of story-telling. Her art is visual, and with cinematographic fluidity and subtlety we see a scene melting into another scene without jolts of transition." Lee combines the narrator's voice of a child observing her surroundings with a grown woman's reflecting on her childhood, using the ambiguity of this voice combined with the narrative technique of flashback to play intricately with perspectives. This narrative method allows Lee to tell a "delightfully deceptive" story that mixes the simplicity of childhood observation with adult situations complicated by hidden motivations and unquestioned tradition. However, at times the blending causes reviewers to question Scout's preternatural vocabulary and depth of understanding.

The book is about Tom Robinson, a Negro, who was charged with raping a white girl. This particular abstract depicts the trial. Atticus Finch, an experienced lawyer, tried to prove the innocence of the Robison. But the jury announced a verdict that Robinson was guilty.

The historical background of the book is “the year of grace” – 1935. That period in America is often called “The Age of Jazz”. It was the time of comparative wealth and peace, and prosperity was claimed an official ideology. Equal rights were established for all men, and women movement also achieved considerable results by that time. But in contrast to this, many public freedoms and human rights were proclaimed, but not executed. And Harper Lee places the action into that period, 60 years after slavery prohibition. Though the black were considered equal by courts, publicity still couldn’t bear it.

The theme of the text is an issue of justice. The message of Happer Lee is that in the face of court each and every human should be treated honestly, no matter what his social status, education or colour of skin is.

In this text there are no event’s chains , but it is represented by author’s speech.

Structural division of the text.

The story was told on behalf of Jean Louise, Atticus’s daughter. It made the story more vivid, tense and emotional. As a daughter she noticed a lot of details which were unusual for Atticus. ( … Atticus did something I never saw him do before or since, in public or in private: he unbuttoned his vest, unbuttoned his collar, loosened his tie, and took off his coat. He never loosened a scrap of his clothing until he undressed at bedtime, and to Jem and me, this was the equivalent of him standing before us stark naked…). Her notes revealed the emotions and feelings of the lawyer, his changing condition during the process of the trial. If the story were written from the point of view of Atticus or the author, it would turn down as a mater-of-fact narration. The details were omitted. (such as Tom Robinson was toying with papers…). The story would lose its objectivity, because Atticus could not describe the event without personal opinion.

The author represents the Atticus’s speech in direct form. If it was represented indirectly, the reader would not hear the lawyer’s voice. On the contrary, the author’s point of view would prevail and the reader could think the author foist his opinion. Atticus words in direct speech have more effect on the reader. It creates such atmosphere as if the reader is in the court himself.

The general atmosphere of this abstract is rather tense. The author keeps the reader in suspense till the very end. The readers take their breath wishing to know that the Negro is innocent. But the author uses the effect of defeated expectancy . In my opinion, the climax in this text is the verdict of the jury. Every “ guilty ” destroys any reader’s hope for justice.

And this is exactly what the author wished to convey. She claims all men are created equal. That means all men have equal rights no matter what colour skin he or she has. People think with stereotypes. All Negroes lie, all Negroes are basically immoral beings, all Negro men are not to be trusted around the woman . But the reality can be the exact opposite of it. There are good Negroes and bad Whites. The author used parallel constructions to emphasize how narrow-minded people could be when they generalize. The court is probably the only place where all generalizations should be avoided. It is a crime to find somebody guilty without worthy evidence and proofs.

Scout analyses the speech itself. The speech reverses the publicistic style which it represents two variants: oral & written.

It is used in public speeches and printed public works which are addressed to a broad audience and devoted to important social or political events, public problems of cultural or moral character. The publicist style has spoken varieties, in particular, the oratorical sub-style. This style is evident in speeches on political and social problems of the day, in orations and addresses on solemn occasions as public weddings, funerals and jubilees, in sermons and debates and also in the speeches of counsel and judges in courts of law. Certain typical features of the spoken variety of speech present in this style are:

a) direct address to the audience by special formulas ( Gentlemen!; Miss Jean Luise1)

Expressions of direct address can be repeated in the course of the speech and may be expressed differently ( Mark you! Mind! ).

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b) special formulas at the end of the speech to thank the audience for their attention ( Thank you very much; Thank you for your time ).

c) the use of the 1st person pronoun we ; 2nd person pronoun you .

d) the use of contractions ; (He's just gone. ;What's he say. )

e) features of colloquial style such as asking the audience questions as the speaker attempts to reach closer contact. The author used a lot of colloquial words such as Negro, stupid and evil, crashing down etc. The words of evidence – jury, defendant, offense. Also there is a big variety of literary and bookish words.

In order to emphasize the actions & conditions of the heroes, the author uses the stylistic devices which are admirable.

The text is rich with repetitions ( some people would have us believe – some people are smarter than others, some people have more opportunity, some people make more money than others, some ladies make better cakes than others – some people are born gifted beyond the normal scope of most men .). Repetitions and numerous parallel constructions allow the lawyer to seem more persuasive, to make people think over his words, to make his speech more clear for the audience. Scout tells us about the reaction of the jury, and Harper Lee hides irony in her words: “and the jury seemed to be attentive: their heads were up, and they followed Atticus’s route with what seemed to be appreciation”; lexical repetition of the word “seem’ combined with syntactical parallelism intensifies the irony.

Moreover stylistic devices are determined by the conditions of communication: jury represents uneducated & unliterary people. Atticus assures the jury that the case is very simple — with the help of gradation and antithesis : “… this case is not a difficult one, it requires no minute sifting of complicated facts , but it does require you to be sure beyond all reasonable doub t as to the guilt of the defendant. This case should never have come to trial ”. He sums it up by allusive simile : “ this case is as simple as black and white ’ . Then Atticus tells the public his own version of the events. He used antithesis , lexical repetition, epithets . Atticus underlines the absurdity of the case by lexical and syntactical repetition combined with antithesis “ She tempted a Negro. She was white, and she tempted a Negro” , and also by an ironical epithet “ unspeakable ”.

Numerous epithets and similes were used to express the author’s attitude. Epithets give personal appraisal of the author, his individual opinion. They convey his emotions. (Judge tailor’s voice … was tiny ). This epithet can express the doubt of the judge. He uses metaphors “ distaff side ” and “hurling at us” with meaning to arouse negative emotions and readdresses them. He brings an example of schools where the stupid and idle are promoted with the industrious (substantivized adjectives), and then underlines that all men are not created equal, employing syntactical parallelism accompanied by anaphora : “ some people are smarter than others, some people have more opportunity, some man make more money than others, some ladies make better cakes than others – some people are born gifted beyond the normal scope of most men” . There is also bathos in the sentence: some people are gifted – and some ladies make better cakes, and it makes the pathos milder.

To sum up, I can say, that the extract gives a false impression of the book. It is devoted to childhood first, and the story with Tom Robinson is just an episode in it, though giving much for thinking. The idea of the fight between justice and injustice is given their unobtrusively. And I think, that sometimes it is important for a child to see injustice to know, how valuable justice is.


Убить пересмешника краткое содержание и анализ романа Харпера Ли

История «Убить пересмешника», краткое содержание которой представлено в данной статье, – это захватывающее повествование, отличающееся лаконизмом и реалистичностью описываемых событий.

Это рассказ о детстве и о незаметном взрослении, о расизме и равенстве, и вообще о жизни глазами ребенка.

Харпер Ли «Убить пересмешника» история создания

Несмотря на то, что в книге затрагиваются серьезные темы, она будет интересна читателям различных возрастов. Издатели относят роман к возрастной категории от 12 лет и старше. В большинстве школ Соединенных Штатов Америки произведение «Убить Пересмешника» входит в школьную программу.

Нелл Харпер Ли англ. Nelle Harper Lee (1926-2016)

Книга, прославившая автора, явилась плодом кропотливого труда. Нелл Харпер Ли, родившаяся в небольшом провинциальном городке штата Алабама, всегда ощущала в себе талант писателя. Но всерьез заняться литературной деятельностью ей долгое время мешали различные обстоятельства. Она писала короткие рассказы и эссе в свободное от офисной работы время.

Рождественский подарок от друзей в виде годового отпуска помог Харпер Ли сосредоточиться на творчестве и создать серию рассказов, в дальнейшем переработанную в роман.

Книга «To kill a mockingbird» появляется в продаже в 60-м году 20 века. Количество страниц в романе – около 400. Книга прочитывается на одном дыхании и мгновенно завоевывает сердца читателей.

Онлайн голосование 2008 года, устроенное интернет-магазином, признало «Убить пересмешника» «лучшей книгой всех времен».

Заглавие произведения символично, и частично смысл названия раскрывается в самой книге. Аттикус Финч в разговоре с сыном называет убийство маленькой птички пересмешника греховным поступком. Птица сравнивается с невинными людьми, героями произведения.

Главные герои

Главные действующие лица с краткой характеристикой:

  1. Джин Луиза Финч – главная героиня романа по прозвищу Глазастик. От лица этой девочки ведется повествование. В начале романа ей шесть лет, она очень впечатлительный и непосредственный ребенок, который наблюдает и познает окружающий мир.
  2. Джим – старший брат Глазастика.
  3. Аттикус Финч – адвокат в небольшом южном городке Америки, отец Джима и Джин. Это герой, наделенный всеми чертами идеального отца, он служит образцом для подражания и центром мира для своих детей.
  4. Кэлпурния – чернокожая кухарка семейства Финч, занимающаяся воспитанием детей.
  5. Дилл Харрис – лучший друг детей Финч, приезжающий в Мейкомб в гости к тетке.

Второстепенные персонажи

В книге много ярких персонажей, типичных представителей своего круга.

Это и члены многочисленного семейства Финч, и соседи, и другие жители городка и его окрестностей:

  • Кэролайн Фишер – молодая учительница в школе Джин Луизы, которая благоволит к современным методикам обучения, но мало чему может научить детей,
  • представители семьи Рэдли – соседи Финчей, отгородившиеся от жителей Мейкомба,
  • представители семьи Канингем бедные фермеры, трудолюбивые и гордые,
  • представители семьи Юэл, принадлежащие к низшим слоям, являющиеся «позором для Мейкомба» и не желающие изменить свое положение,
  • миссис Генри Лафайет Дюбоз сварливая одинокая старуха, живущая через два дома от Финчей,
  • Моди Эткинсон – независимая женщина, проживающая на одной улице с Джин и Джимом. Она отличается трезвостью взглядов и твердостью характера,
  • Александра Финч – сестра Аттикуса, представительница консервативного американского общества, старающаяся сделать из Глазастика настоящую леди,
  • Том Робинсон негр, незаслуженно обвиненный в тяжком преступлении и приговоренный к тюремному сроку,
  • Гек Тейт – добрый и честный шериф городка, старающийся следовать закону и голосу сердца.

To kill a mockingbird краткое содержание по главам

Роман To kill a mockingbird состоит из 31 главы, краткий пересказ которых приводится ниже.

Знакомство с главными героями произведения и описание городка Мейкомб. Рассказ о событиях начала 30-х годов приводится в форме воспоминаний Джин Луизы Финч.

Девочка живет со своим отцом, занимающимся адвокатской практикой, братом Джимом, который старше сестры на четыре года, и Кэлпурнией.

Мама детей умерла, когда Джин Луизе было два года. С тех пор воспитанием мальчика и девочки занимается отец, которого они считают вежливым и справедливым.

Летом шестилетняя Джин и девятилетний Джим знакомятся с Диллом, с которым вместе беззаботно проводят время. Дети играют в различные игры. Но больше всего их привлекает дом Рэдли и его обитатели.

По слухам, внутри заточен Страшила Рэдли, младший сын Натана Рэдли, связавшийся в юности с плохой компанией и наказанный отцом.

Наступил сентябрь, дети попрощались с Диллом, и началась школьная жизнь. Глазастику скучно в школе, где она не может проявить себя, и где молоденькая учительница обучает детей по-новому.

Дети Финч приглашают на завтрак сына фермера Канингема. Уолтер Канингем беседует рассудительно по-взрослому с Аттикусом, а Глазастик вновь проявляет свою непосредственность, за что получает нагоняй от Кэлпурнии. В школе происходит примечательный инцидент с Баррисом Юэлом, пришедшим в первый день на занятия по требованию инспектора. Он доводит до слез молодую мисс Кэролайн и покидает класс.

В школе у Глазастика по-прежнему не все гладко. Однажды по дороге домой она обнаруживает в стволе дуба на границе земли Рэдли пакетики с жевательной резинкой. Она рассказывает о находке брату, и позднее они находят в дупле много интересных мелочей.

Дети, догадываясь, что тайник в дубе устроил Страшила Рэдли, написали ему записку. За это они получают нагоняй от Аттикуса, запрещающего дразнить людей и разыгрывать историю их жизни на глазах у соседей.

Мальчишкам приходит в голову забраться в огород Рэдли, где убегая от хозяина дома, Джим теряет штаны. А утром заботливо зашитые брюки обнаруживаются на заборе.

Джин Луиза переходит во 2 класс, где ей нравится не больше чем в 1. В тайнике дети обнаруживают двух куколок из мыла, а через две недели – жевательную резинку, потом – медаль. Но кто-то замазывает дупло цементом, и дети сильно расстраиваются.

Рассказывается о зимних забавах, когда неожиданно выпадает редкий для юга Америки снег. Дети лепят забавного снеговика, которого соседка мисс Моди называет Мофродит.

Дети сталкиваются с жестокой реальностью, когда их отец берется защищать чернокожего. Глазастик болезненно воспринимает нападки окружающих на Аттикуса и с кулаками бросается на обидчиков.

Джин и Джим испытывают гордость за отца, одним выстрелом убившего бешеного пса.

Джим, не стерпевший высказываний миссис Дюбоз об Аттикусе, разоряет ее цветник. В наказание ему приходится читать вслух больной старухе Дюбоз.

Луиза старается поддержать брата. Болезнь приводит к смерти миссис Дюбоз, оставившей мальчику коробку с камелиями.

Ожесточившаяся на весь мир женщина не оттаивает и на смертном одре. Так заканчивается первая часть романа.

В воскресенье Кэлпурния ведет ребят в церковь для чернокожих, где остро ощущаются расовые различия.

Приезжает тетя Александра, чтобы заняться воспитанием племянников.

Аттикус Финч занимается защитой Тома, отчего на семью Финчей ополчились жители городка. Неожиданно появляется Дилл, сбежавший из дома.

Аттикус дежурит у дверей здания, где арестованный Том дожидается суда. Ночью Джин и Джим становятся свидетелями попытки совершить жителями самосуд над негром.

Ребята присутствуют на судебном процессе и проникаются сочувствием к Робинсону.

На процессе Юэлы показывают свое истинное лицо. Мэйелла Юэл свидетельствует против Тома.

Томас Робинсон дает показания и рассказывает свою версию событий. С речью на суде присяжных выступает Аттикус.

Присяжные признают Тома виновным.

Ребята переживают из-за несправедливого приговора, не понимая, как такое могло случиться.

Мистер Юэл угрожает Аттикусу.

Тетя Александра устраивает прием для дам Мейкомба, на котором присутствует Глазастик.

Тома Робинсона застрелили при попытке к бегству.

Джим переходит в седьмой класс, Джин Луиза в третий. Они по-прежнему не могут забыть про суд над Томом.

В школе готовится праздник на День всех святых, где Глазастик выступит в костюме окорока.

Джим и Джин Луиза в темноте возвращаются с праздника, когда на них нападает неизвестный. Девочку защитил объемный костюм от удара ножом, а мальчик серьезно избит. На помощь приходит Страшила Рэдли, который в схватке убивает обидчика и на руках приносит Джима домой. Аттикус вызывает врача и шерифа. Мистер Тейт, возвратившись с места преступления, сообщает, что обнаружил под деревом Боба Юэла с кухонным ножом между ребер.

Джин Луиза рассказывает взрослым обо всем, что произошло с ней и братом по дороге с праздника. В своем огромном костюме она больше слышала, чем видела.

Глазастик знакомится со своим спасителем Артуром Рэдли. Аттикус и Гек спорят о том, как представить случившееся жителям и приходят к выводу, что Боб Юэл сам напоролся на собственный нож. Ведь вмешать в грязную историю Артура значило бы, по словам Джин, «застрелить пересмешника».

Глазастик провожает Страшилу домой, а возвратившись, видит отца, дежурившего у постели раненого сына.

Анализ произведения «Убить пересмешника»

Критика относит книгу «Убить пересмешника» к жанру романа о нравах, о чем говорит аннотация к изданию. Произведение призвано воспитывать подростков, прививать им чувства справедливости и взаимопомощи.

В повествовании присутствует большое количество диалогов, что является отличительной чертой детской и юношеской литературы.

Диалоги прерывают объяснения, звучащие из уст главных героев детей. Все это оживляет текст и захватывает читателя.

Заглавие романа несет определенную интригу, вызывает непонимание, заставляет задуматься над смыслом написанного. И лишь отрывок, в котором Аттикус говорит о птице пересмешнике, объясняет название книги, раскрывая главную истину, что нельзя обижать слабых и беззащитных.

Не меньшее внимание при анализе произведения следует обратить на имена персонажей книги. В некотором смысле их можно назвать нарицательными, служащими характеристикой людей, их носящих.

Так, фамилия отца Джин и Джима, Atticus Finch, переводится с английского как «зяблик». Прозвище его дочери, переведенное на русский как Глазастик, в оригинале – Scout, дословно скаут или следопыт.

Лучшие экранизации

Лучшая экранизация романа вышла на большие экраны в 1962 году и удостоилась нескольких Оскаров.

Главную роль адвоката и отца семейства в фильме сыграл неподражаемый Грегори Пек, получивший за роль Оскар и Золотой глобус.


Харпер Ли написала книгу о переломной эпохе в истории США, когда нетерпимость и расизм начинают уходить в прошлое. Роман учит терпимости, доброте и объективности суждений. Не случайно обилие цитат, перенесенных из книги в реальную жизнь, помогающих прочувствовать дух времени и человеческие переживания.

И долгое время после прочтения книги в душе звучат слова Аттикуса, завершающие повествование: «почти все люди хорошие, когда их в конце концов поймешь».